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ASSIGNMENT 3 SPECIFICATION1
- PARSER
General View
Due Date: prior or on April 17
th, 2021 (midnight)
• Important Note: Late submission can be accepted (since we are entering in the final
exam week).
Earnings: 15% of your course grade
Development: Activity can be done individually or in teams (only 2 students allowed).
Purpose: Development of a Parser, rewriting the grammar and adjusting the tables.
? Assignment #3 consists of two tasks. Task 1 is related to rewriting grammar, and
Task 2 involves the PLATYPUS 2.0 Parser implementation. At the end, you will be
able to have a rudimentary a PLATYPUS interpreter.
The main objective is to write a Recursive Descent Predictive Parser (RDPP) for the
PLATYPUS 2.0 language. You are to integrate the Parser with your existing lexical analyzer
to complete the front-end of your PLATYPUS 2.0 compiler. The implementation is broken
into two tasks.
Task 1: Modifying the Grammar (5 marks)
1.1. TASK OVERVIEW
To build a RDPP you need to modify the syntactical part of the PLATYPUS 2.0 Grammar
(The Platypus Syntactic Specification). The grammar provided for you in
PlatypusLGR_W21.pdf is an LR grammar (that is, a grammar suitable for LR parsing).
1 Adapted from resources developed by Prof. Svillen Ranev (Algonquin College, 2019)
Algonquin College – Compilers: CST8152 – Assignment 3 Specification – Fall, 2020
2
• You must transform it into an LL grammar suitable for Recursive Descent Predictive
Parsing. To accomplish that you should follow the steps outlined bellow.
• Check the PLATYPUS 2.0 Grammar for completeness and correctness.
• Eliminate the left recursion and apply left factoring where needed.
Note 1: Remembering RDPP
The RDPP means that you are creating a deterministic way to identify the sequence of tokens from
one specific grammar. To do this, it is required to solve some problems (left recursion and left
factoring) and we need to be able to detect some tokens (see the FIRST set to be used).
Some of the syntactic productions must be rewritten to make them suitable for recursive
decent predictive parsing. Do not forget that our grammar (PlatypusLGR_20F.pdf) is an LR
grammar, which must be transformed into an equivalent LL grammar.
For example, the productions of the type:
|
can be rearranged in a convenient for transformation form
|
Once you rearrange the production, you must eliminate the immediate left-recursion. The
transformation will produce the following two new productions:


In some cases, it is possible to rework the grammar to avoid some of the transformations.
This approach is often applied to production, which contain a “left-factor”. For example, the
output statement
→ WRITE ();
| WRITE ();
can be reworked in the following way:
→ WRITE ();
| STR_T
Algonquin College – Compilers: CST8152 – Assignment 3 Specification – Fall, 2020
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where STR_T is a string literal token produced by the scanner.
The production does not contain a left-factor anymore.
• TIP: It is also possible to simplify the grammar applying formal simplification
procedures (see pages 223-224 (old 183-185) in your textbook). Do not simplify the
grammar for this assignment.
• Build the FIRST set for the syntactic grammar.
o After you transform the grammar you must build the FIRST set for each of the
grammar productions (non-terminals).
o A FIRST set for a production (nonterminal) is a set of terminals that appear as
left-most symbols in any of the production alternatives.
o When you build the FIRST set, if some of the elements of the set are nonterminals,
they must be replaced by their FIRST sets and so on.
o The final FIRST set must contain only terminals (tokens).
o The elements of the set must be unique.
o This is essential for the predictive parser. If they are not unique, the left
factoring transformation must be applied to the corresponding production.
1.2. TASK SUBMISSION
• Part 1 - Task 1 Submission:
o Write the entire syntactic grammar and the corresponding FIRST sets.
o Do not remove the original productions. If a production is to be transformed,
write the modification below the original production and indicate clearly the
type of the transformations applied to the original production.
o Do not include the provided explanatory text. Include only the grammar
productions. Write your name(s) on every page.
Tip 1: See Template
Some examples of transforming the grammar and building the FIRST set is done for you in the
document PlatypusLGR_W21F.pdf published on Brightspace. The transformation is indicated in
blue and type of the applied transformations are indicated in red. The work you must complete is
indicated with the word complete in red.
Now you are ready for the next task. You can work on both tasks simultaneously - production by
production and function by function. I strongly recommend this approach.
Algonquin College – Compilers: CST8152 – Assignment 3 Specification – Fall, 2020
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Task 2: Parser Implementation (10 marks)
2.1. GENERAL VIEW
In Task 1, you had changed the grammar for the PLATYPUS 3.0 programming language.
Now, in Task 2, you are to create a synthetical analyzer (parser) for the PLATYPUS 2.0
programming language.
2.2. IMPLEMENTATION STEPS
To build the RDPP follow the steps outlined below.
Step 1
• Open also the parser_uncomplete.h. Include the required system and user header
files.
• TODO_01: Define one static global variable: lookahead of type Token.
• TODO_02: Additionally, define a global variable syntaxErrorNumber of type int.
• You have some extern variables to be used in your code. You may add additional
variable declarations and constants definitions, if necessary (and it is).
• TODO_03: Create constants for all keywords from PLATYPUS 3.0.
• TODO_04: You have the main functions defined; however, you must define all the
functions used in the parser implementation that represents nonterminal definitions
from grammar. For instance: void program(void).
• So, all function prototypes, variable definitions/declarations, and constant definitions
must be in parser.h.
Step 2
• Open your RDPP source code file parser_uncomplete.c. You can see that your
code for the parser has been already created.
• Your startParser() function. You can see that the first top-down execution is already
given for you: note that you are processing the main structure in PLATYPUS 2.0:
PROGRAM, given by the function program(), that you need to implement later.
Algonquin College – Compilers: CST8152 – Assignment 3 Specification – Fall, 2020
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void startParser(void) {
lookahead = processToken();
program();
matchToken(SEOF_T, NO_ATTR);
printf("%s\n", "PLATY: Source file parsed");
}
• Your matchToken() function is also partially defined:
void matchToken(int tokenCode, int tokenAttribute) {
int matchFlag = 1;
switch (lookahead.code) {
case KW_T:
case REL_OP_T:
case ART_OP_T:
case LOG_OP_T:
//TODO_05
default:
//TODO_06
}
if (matchFlag && lookahead.code == SEOF_T)
//TODO_07
if (matchFlag) {
//TODO_08
}
else
//TODO_09
}
EXPLANATION:
o The matchToken() is a function called all the time by parser. It tries to match
the current input token (lookahead) and the token required by the parser,
checking with the expected values.
? The token required by the parser is represented by two integers - the
token code (tokenCode), and the token attribute (tokenAttribute).
? TODO_05: The attribute code is used only when the token code is one
of the following codes: KW_T, LOG_OP_T, ART_OP_T, REL_OP_T.
? TODO_06: In all other cases the token code is matched only.
? TODO_07: If the match is successful and the lookahead is SEOF_T,
the function returns.
Algonquin College – Compilers: CST8152 – Assignment 3 Specification – Fall, 2020
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? TODO_08: If the match is successful and the lookahead is not
SEOF_T, the function advances to the next input token by executing the
statement:
lookahead = processToken();
• If the new lookahead token is ERR_T, the function calls the error
printing function printError(), advances to the next input token
by calling processToken() again, increments the error counter
syntaxErrorNumber, and returns.
• If the match is unsuccessful, the function calls the error handler
syncErrorHandler() passing tokenCode and returns.
? TODO_09: Finally, if no matching is found, you must call the
syncErrorHandler() passing the Token code.
• Your syncErrorHandler() function is also partially defined:
void syncErrorHandler(int syncTokenCode) {
//TODO_10
syntaxErrorNumber++;
while (lookahead.code != syncTokenCode) {
//TODO_11
}
if (lookahead.code != SEOF_T)
//TODO_12
}
EXPLANATION:
o TODO_10: The error handling function syncErrorHandler() implements a
simple panic mode error recovery. The function calls printError() and
increments the error counter.
o TODO_11: Then the function implements a panic mode error recovery:
? The function advances the input token (lookahead) until it finds a token
code matching the one required by the parser (passed to the function
as syncTokenCode).
? When found, the lookahead is updated.
? It is possible, when advancing, that the function can reach the end of
the source file without finding the matching token.
? To prevent from overrunning the input buffer, before every move the
function checks if the end of the file is reached.
Algonquin College – Compilers: CST8152 – Assignment 3 Specification – Fall, 2020
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? If the function looks for lookahead.code different from SEOF_T and
reaches the end of the source file, the function calls
exit(syntaxErrorNumber).
o TODO_12: If a matching token is found and the matching token is not
SEOF_T, the function advances the input token one more time and returns. If
a matching token is found and the matching token is SEOF_T, the function
returns.
• Your printError() function is also partially defined:
void printError() {
Token t = lookahead;
printf("PLATY: Syntax error: Line:%3d\n", line);
printf("***** Token code:%3d Attribute: ", t.code);
switch (t.code) {
//TODO_13
default:
printf("PLATY: Scanner error: invalid token code: %d\n",
t.code);
}
}
EXPLANATION:
o The error handling function syncErrorHandler() uses a switch/case structure
checking for token code the appropriate output, most of time printing the
attribute from the token (using the appropriate format).
o TODO_13: Implement all the cases to show the error message.
? TIP: the matching with standard outputs – sout files – is essential to be
sure that the error handler is working fine.
o The function prints the following error message:
PLATY: Syntax error: Line: line_number_of_the_syntax_error
Token code: lookahead token code Attribute: token attribute
and returns.
For example:
PLATY: Syntax error: Line: 2
- Token code: 13 Attribute: NA
PLATY: Syntax error: Line: 8
Token code: 9 Attribute: 0
PLATY: Syntax error: Line: 9
Algonquin College – Compilers: CST8152 – Assignment 3 Specification – Fall, 2020
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Token code: 2 Attribute: sum
PLATY: Syntax error: Line: 11
Token code: 4 Attribute: 0.5
PLATY: Syntax error: Line: 17
Token code: 6 Attribute: Result:
PLATY: Syntax error: Line: 21
Token code: 16 Attribute: ELSE
o If the offending token is a keyword, variable identifier, or string literal you must
use the corresponding token attribute to access and print the lexeme (keyword
name, variable name, or string).
o For example, to print the keyword lexeme you must use the keywordTable
defined in table.h.
o Important note: You are not allowed to copy the keyword table in parser.h or
parser.c. You must use a proper declaration to create an external link to the
one defined in table.h.
o Similarly, you must use the string literal table to print the sting literals.
Step 3
• TODO_14: For each of your grammar productions write a function named after the
name of the production. For example:
void program(void) {
matchToken(KW_T, MAIN);
matchToken(LBR_T, NO_ATTR);
optionalStatements();
matchToken(RBR_T, NO_ATTR);
printf("%s\n", "PLATY: Program parsed");
}
Writing a production function, follow the sub steps below.
Step 3.1:
o To implement the Parser, you must use the modified grammar (see Task 1).
o Before writing a function, carefully analyze the production.
o If the production consists of a single production rule (no alternatives), write the
corresponding function without using the FIRST set (see above).
o If you use the lookahead to verify in advance whether to proceed with the
production and call the printError() function.
Algonquin College – Compilers: CST8152 – Assignment 3 Specification – Fall, 2020
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Example: The production:
-> INPUT ();
Should be implemented as follows:
void inputStatement(void) {
matchToken(KW_T, READ);
matchToken(LPR_T, NO_ATTR);
variableList();
matchToken(RPR_T, NO_ATTR);
matchToken(EOS_T, NO_ATTR);
}
AND NOT like this:
void input_statement(void){
if(lookahead.code == KW_T
&& lookahead.attribute.get_int== READ) {
matchToken (KW_T, READ);
matchToken (LPR_T, NO_ATTR);
variableList();
matchToken (RPR_T, NO_ATTR);
matchToken (EOS_T, NO_ATTR);
printf("PLATY: Input statement parsed");
} else
printError();
}
This implementation will “catch” the syntax error but will prevent the match() function
from calling the error handler at the right place.
Step 3.2:
o If a production has more than one alternative on the right side (even if one of
them is empty), you must use the FIRST set for the production.
o For example, the FIRST set for the production is:
{KW_T(IF), KW_T(WHILE) , KW_T(READ), KW_T(WRITE), AVID_T, SVID_T,
and .
o Here is an example how the FIRST set is used to write a function for a
production:
void optionalStatements(void) {
switch (lookahead.code) {
case AVID_T:
Algonquin College – Compilers: CST8152 – Assignment 3 Specification – Fall, 2020
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case SVID_T:
statements();
break;
case KW_T:
if (lookahead.attribute.get_int == IF
|| lookahead.attribute.get_int == WHILE
|| lookahead.attribute.get_int == READ
|| lookahead.attribute.get_int == WRITE) {
statements();
break;
}
default:
printf("%s\n", "PLATY: Opt_statements parsed");
}
}
o Pay special attention to the implementation of the empty string. If you do not
have an empty string in your production, you must call the printError()
function at that point.
o You are not allowed to call the error handling function syncErrorHandler()
inside production functions and you are not allowed to advance the lookahead
within production functions as well.
o Only matchToken() can call syncErrorHandler(), and only matchToken()
and syncErrorHandler() can advance lookahead.
o Each function must contain a line in its header indicating the production it
implements and the FIRST set for that production (see above).
Step 3.3:
o Build your parser incrementally, function by function.
o The function headers for the parser functions should contain only the following:
the grammar production the function implements
? Example:
/*************************************************************
* Program statement
* BNF: -> MAIN { }
* FIRST( )= {KW_T (MAIN)}.
************************************************************/
o After adding a function, test the parser thoroughly.
o Use your main program to test the parser.
Algonquin College – Compilers: CST8152 – Assignment 3 Specification – Fall, 2020
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Submission
3.1. What to Submit for Part 1 (Task 1 and Task 2):
• Only digital submission is required for this assignment.
• The submission MUST follow the Assignment Submission Standard.
Digital Submission Summary
• Name: Use a ZIP file including all the resources required to your assignment
evaluation. Individual or teams submission must be done up to the due date.
o The name of the file must be Your Last Name followed by the last three digits
of your student number followed by A3.
o For example: Name123_A3.zip.
? If your last name is long, you can truncate it to the first 5 letters.
? The name of the file must contain the names of both members e.g.
Name123_Name456_A3.zip.
? If you have worked in a team, you must include a team page also in the
zip file.
• DOCUMENTS: The modified syntactic part of the PLATYPUS grammar and the
FIRST sets must be submitted in MS Word or PDF format.
o Indicate clearly all the changes to the grammar.
o Indicate what kind of transformations you have used to modify the grammar.
o NOTE: Remember that the transformed grammar must be equivalent to the
original one.
• CODE: Compress into a zip file the following files:
o Include all project’s .h files and .c files.
o Include any additional input test files if you have any.
Enjoy the assignment and do not forget that:
“It is better to know some of the question than all of the answers.” James Thruber
Good Luck with Assignment 3!

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